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THE    CHINESE   MIND                      8l
astronomy, sciences which required an analytical mind: and the Hindus developed a grammar of their own. The Chinese, with all their native intelligence, never developed a science of grammar, and their mathematics and astronomical knowledge have all been imported. For the Chinese mind delights only in moral platitudes, and their abstract terms like "benevolence/8 "kindliness/* "propriety" and "loyalty" are so general that in such discussions they are naturally lost in vague generalities.
Of all the ancient philosophers of the Chou Dynasty, only Motse and Hanfeitse developed a style akin to cogent reasoning. Mencius, who was undoubtedly a great sophist, cared only for such big words as "utility" and "righteousness." All the rest of them, like Chuangtse, Liehtse and Huainantse, delighted in graceful metaphors. The disciples of Motse, Huei Shih and Kungsun Lung, who were great sophists, were interested in spinning scholastic conundrums, and in endeavouring to prove such propositions as "eggs have hair on them," "horses lay eggs," "a dog may be a lamb," "a chicken has three legs," "fire is not warm," "the wheel never touches the ground," "a tortoise is longer than a snake," etc. The scholars of the Han Dynasty, which soon followed, were interested only in making Alexandrian commentaries on the classics of the preceding period. The Ch'in scholars after them revived Taoism and depended on their "intuition" for the solving of the mysteries of their own bodies and the universe* Experimentation was never thought of, and no scientific method had been developed. The Sung philosophers reinterpreted Confucianism in the light of Buddhism, and transformed it into a system of mental discipline and moral hygiene. They developed a reputation for grasping the general content of a book "without wanting to know it thoroughly." The Sung scholars had therefore the most unscientific philology, or no philology at all. Only as late as the Ch'ing (Manchu) Dynasty was there developed a comparative method, which at once put the Ch*iag philology on a height unattained before. Ch'ing philology was the nearest approach to a scientific method in China.
It is easy to see why the Chinese mind cannot develop a scientific method; for the scientific method, besides being analytical, always involves an amount of stupid drudgery,